Life Sciences August 2020

    Article(s) on Dead neurons removal, Human X chromosome sequencing, Neurons’ survival…





  • Mice glial cells involved in dead neurons removal

    Three types of glial cells are involved in the process of removing dead neurons in mice. A microglia engulfs the neuron and its main dendrites. Astrocytes target the smaller connections while NG2 cells prevent the spread of remaining debris. This process becomes less efficient with aging, which contributes to blocking the biological pathways.



    Complete end-to-end human X chromosome is now sequenced

    For the first time geneticists have sequenced a complete end-to-end human X chromosome. The X chromosome, it’s a highly repetitive region spanning 3.1 million DNA base pairs. The researchers were able to resolve this notoriously tricky structure by looking for slight variations in the repeats. These variations allowed the scientists to align and connect the long reads to form a complete sequence for the centromere..



    An organism’s survival depends on its neurons’ survival

    An organism’s survival is dependent on the survival of its neurons. A small piece of genetic sequence, called microexon, is triggered at neuron birth to decrease the cell death, “apoptosis”, so that neurons live for many years.



    Mechanical and biochemical signals control everything in cells

    Mechanical and biochemical signals control everything in cells and can propagate to other cells. When a fundamental pathway is activated a single cell can trigger a cascading reaction resulting in the migration of a cell collective.



    Microbes can regulate a neuronal circuit

    Microbes can regulate a neuronal circuit that starts in the gut, goes to the brain and comes back to the gut. Neurons outside the intestines can be controlled by what happens inside the intestines.



    Guanine-rich DNA can fold in on itself forming a four-stranded structure

    Guanine-rich DNA can fold in on itself forming a four-stranded structure called G4 which forms and dissipates very quickly. This quadruple helix DNA appears to be more common in cancer cells and may be linked to genome stability.



    Two different ways of aging in the yeast

    In the yeast called saccharomyces cerevisiae cells age trough two different ways. Either a gradual decline in the stability of the nucleolus, a region of nuclear DNA or dysfunction of the mitochondria. A molecular circuit controls cell aging from early in their life. When reprogramming the circuit by modifying its DNA cells have a dramatically extended lifespan. The model has to be tested in human cells.



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    (74aH*) : August 6th is the anniversary of the atomic bomb explosion on Hiroshima in 1945.
    This date represents the entrance of Humanity into the age of Revelation (Apocalypsis).
    Thus, since August 6, 2019, we are in 74 aH, (meanning 74 after Hiroshima).
    It is also an “atheist” and universal calendar to replace the existing “monotheist”, religious and non universal calendars.